TCO layers are having prerequisite with an electron affinity below 4.5 eV to form an ohmic contact. the open circuit voltage (Voc) of CdTe NC solar cells has stagnated below 0.7 V, which is significantly lower than most CdTe thin film solar cells fabricated by vacuum technology (around 0.8 V~0.9 V). n�3ܣ�k�Gݯz=��[=��=�B�0FX'�+������t���G�,�}���/���Hh8�m�W�2p[����AiA��N�#8$X�?�A�KHI�{!7�. It was found that to synthesize effective CZTS films from electrodeposition route using a layered metal precursor, it is necessary to start with a nonstoichiometric initial precursor composition [for instance the Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio must be as low as 0.7]. 2.7 [22]. /Pages 8 0 R 6 0 obj MajorVersionDate /Length 24847 doi Similarly those involving volatile or soluble Cd compounds (e.g., CdCl2) also must be more closely scrutinized. �ꇆ��n���Q�t�}MA�0�al������S�x ��k�&�^���>�0|>_�'��,�G! /BaseFont /ZapfDingbats The post-grown treatments including CdCl2 heat treatment and Cu treatment have been applied on some CdTe solar cells for comparison, before the last step of back contact deposition. It bears a reverse, n-i-p, configuration and the light enters through the last grown p-layer. For this Final Report, highlights of the first two Phases will be provided and then detail will be given on the last year and a half of Phase III. springer.com http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/ CdTe thin film absorbers possess good electronic property favorable for solar cells action. The II-IV semiconductor compound, CdTe, has suitable electrical and optical properties as photovoltaic and high-energy radiation sensor material. Pawar et al. This may lead to secondary phase formation and may limit this technique to produce CZTS single phase. pdfx Subcontract Report NREL/SR-5200-51380 . Akhtaruzzaman, in Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, 2017. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light. Finally, a conducting back contact is deposited onto the CdTe layer. http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/mm/ The CdTe is most attractive for its chemical simplicity and the robust stability. CdTe is a group II–VI compound semiconductor, and one of those whose electrical conductivity can be controlled between n-type and p-type. This too has economic advantages because fewer cells have to be interconnected, making module production simpler. This has been possible with the introduction of undoped ZnO instead of CdS buffer layer and coevaporation of NaxSe during the CIGS deposition. Text converted to PDF/A-2b >> A power conversion efficiency of 11.25% was obtained with an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V, as shown in Table 2.4 [21]. springerlink.com Cadmium telluride PV is the only thin film technology with lower costs than conventional solar cells made of crystalline silicon in multi-kilowatt systems. >> pdfToolbox noindex Mirrors crossmark:MajorVersionDate Due to its advantage over the light absorption, it is sufficient to have only 2 μm thick material. ID of PDF/X standard In addition, it is possible to produce thin film solar cells on flexible materials, including fabrics that might be used for clothing. The abrupt decline around 825 nm matches well with the CdTe bandgap. The intrinsic (i) form of a-Si thin film can be doped as p-type or n-type to form a p-n junction, however, initial p-n junction device trials could not result in a solar cell action. Geetam Richhariya, ... Samsher, in Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, 2020. Quantum efficiency of CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cell. endobj CdTe is not only stable for terrestrial applications but it has also been demonstrated that CdTe has excellent stability under high energy-photon and electron irradiation for space applications, superior to Si, GaAs, CIGS etc. This too is cheaper than crystalline silicon, and solar cells made from it can be deposited on a variety of substrates. The reduction of these metallic ions is given by the following reaction: where M represents the metallic compound and z the charge. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a II-VI metal chalcogenide with direct band gap of ~ 1.45 eV, very high optical absorption (105 cm− 1), and p-type conductivity, making it an ideal material for PV application. Several semiconductor compounds with n-type conductivity and band gaps between 2.0 and 3.4 eV have been applied as a buffer to form a heterojunction in CIGS solar cells. The Cu–Zn–Sn precursors were then deposited in a one step process at room temperature without stirring in a conventional three-electrode cell assembly and the entire system was annealed in elemental sulfur under N2 atmosphere at 600°C for 2 hours. /OutputConditionIdentifier (Custom) converted to PDF/A-2b external Text >> Since CdTe has high absorption coefficient, thicknesses for CdTe thin films are limited within 2–10 μm (Albright et al., 1998). << /RegistryName () DOI Issue number It is also now purported to be the lowest cost per watt technology, have the shortest energy payback time and be the least carbon intensive in production.

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